# New Findings In Physics

Physics is making important new discoveries. These discoveries will affect our understanding of the universe and our daily lives.

These developments might not be as radical as those that led to the break with the classical physics system however, they will have long-term effects. They could lead to better understanding and predictions of the universe’s future, or aid in the understanding of things previously unimaginable.

## Magnetism and electricity

Two of the most significant forces in the universe are electricity and magnetism. They play a major role in microwaves, radio waves and visible light as well as X-rays and Gamma radiation.

Answer 1: Electromagnetic forces result from the attraction and repulsion between electrically charged particles. Similar charges repel, however opposite charges attract.

In a hydrogen atom, for instance the proton inside the nucleus is charged with a positive electric charge of 1.60e-19 coulombs. An electron that is moving around it has negative charge of -1.60e-19 Coulombs.

The magnetic field is created by electrons spinning around the nucleus. This magnetic field allows objects to be attracted by or dispelled, similar to a needle in a compass.

## Vibrations

Vibration is a word that describes the regular back-and-forth motion of particles within an elastic body. The motion can be forced or free.

Forced vibrations occur when a system is disturbed from equilibrium. They are commonplace in nature.

A classic example is a pendulum that is suspended by a string from a fixed point. The pendulum can vibrate when it is moved from its resting position.

Another great example of natural vibration is a mass suspended on a spring which vibrates when it is pulled down and then released. The animation to the right illustrates that the mass is vibrating vertically when it is pulled to its right and horizontally when pulled to its left.

## Waves

Waves are a type of disturbance that travels through matter in a regular and oscillating way. They can be observed in everything from light to sound and the motion of subatomic particles such as electrons.

They can be classified into three types including seismic, electromagnetic and mechanical. All three have different properties.

Frequency (f), is the number of times per wave in a unit of time. Period (T) is the length of time for the wave to pass through a point.

Amplitude refers to the greatest displacement of a particle from its neutral position on an oscillation. A higher amplitude is associated with more energy.

Waves can be either transverse or longitudinal and there are a variety of types of waves. Longitudinal waves compress, while transverse waves are more lateral. Examples of longitudinal waves include water waves and sound.

## Optics

Optics is a subfield of physics that studies properties and behaviour of light and the instruments we employ to detect their properties. Optics has been a major driver in the development of numerous technologies.

In addition it has played a key role in the discovery of new physical theories. It was instrumental in the development of quantum mechanics theory in the early 20th century.

Today, optics is one of the most active fields in modern physical science. It has numerous applications in science, industry and medicine.

## Mathematical Methods

Mathematical methods are important to study physical systems. They are also employed in engineering and in other fields.

The evolution of the mathematical field of physics is in large part due to the contributions of European mathematicians in the 18th and 19th centuries. They included Leonhard Euler, Daniel Bernoulli and Joseph-Louis Lagrange who formulated partial differential equations and variational calculus, as well as potential theory.

The application of mathematical analysis to physics has led to important discoveries in many fields, including hydrodynamics, celestial mechanics, continuum mechanics, elasticity theory thermodynamics and fluid dynamics, magnetic, electrical, and electromagnetic theories. It has also had an impact on other mathematical areas.

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